electric guitar raven | electric guitar garageband

Now that you know a little bit of history behind the electric guitar, let’s dive into some of the different types of electric guitars that you can find at Sam Ash. You may be thinking to yourself, “Why are there so many different types of electric guitars?” The reason is this: each and every type of electric guitar serves a unique purpose and will cater to various types of playing styles and musical genres.
Some people like to play the two notes on 5th and 4th strings with a small barre with the 3rd finger. It’s O.K. to do that, but I think using two fingers gives you a better finger position on the notes; you’ll get a better sound that way, it makes it easier to change chords most of the time and easier to get all the thin strings muted. I strongly advise to learn it this way, and then if you still prefer to use the little barre you have the option of choosing whichever one works best in any situation!
What are chords? Basically, it is a two or more notes that are combined together. When we think of chords it is basically combination of notes played simultaneously. What we are going to do is we are going to know how to read chords.
A strong guide for those learning their way around an acoustic guitar, this book will teach you to play popular songs like “Angie,” “Barely Breathing,” “Behind Blue Eyes,” “Building a Mystery,” “Change the World,” “Dust in the Wind,” “Fast Car,” “Here Comes the Sun,” “Jack and Diane,” “Landslide,” “Leaving on a Jet Plane,” “Maggie May,” “More Than Words,” “Name,” “You’ve Got a Friend,” “Yesterday,” and others.
The discussion highlighted a relatively new trend, in an effort to explore the ongoing relevance of acoustic guitars: performers who wouldn’t normally be associated with guitars potentially bringing them onstage. The fascination of rap and hip-hop artists with 1990s alternative guitar-based music was a prime example. The upshot is that it can be good to have a guitar in your hands that doesn’t look like it aspires to be Willie Nelson’s legendary Trigger or Father John Misty’s Martin D-28.
Some of the other that you can check is Amaj, Cmaj, Dmaj, Emaj, Cmaj9 and Gmaj. Those are the major chords that you can start to grip on. For the minor chords are the following: Ami, which is similar to Emaj wherein you will see in a chord chart that Ami really looks like Emaj, and the Emi. Those are the only two minor chords that you need to now right now because when we get to barre chords where you will learn later on after getting on the scales and riffs. Then you will learn all the minor chords across the entire guitar lesson.
Matthew Bellamy is just Uprising. Not much to say being an amazing guitarist, I reckon the best of all time! You listen to him for the 1st time, you’ll suddenly change your mind because he’ll blow it like hell.
33 Tony Iommi Anthony Frank “Tony” Iommi is an English guitarist, songwriter and producer. Best known as lead guitarist and founding member of the pioneering heavy metal band Black Sabbath, he has been the band’s sole continual member and primary composer. At age 17, he accidentally lost the fingertips of his middle …read more.
{ “thumbImageID”: “Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Alpine-White/H79039000002000”, “defaultDisplayName”: “Epiphone Les Paul Custom PRO Electric Guitar”, “styleThumbWidth”: “60”, “styleThumbHeight”: “60”, “styleOptions”: [ { “name”: “Alpine White”, “sku”: “sku:site51321473136588”, “price”: 599.0, “regularPrice”: 599.0, “msrpPrice”: 999.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Epiphone/Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Alpine-White-1321473136588.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Alpine-White/H79039000002000”, “brandName”: “Epiphone”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Alpine-White/H79039000002000-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Ebony”, “sku”: “sku:site51321473136458”, “price”: 599.0, “regularPrice”: 599.0, “msrpPrice”: 999.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Epiphone/Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony-1321473136458.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony/H79039000001000”, “brandName”: “Epiphone”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Les-Paul-Custom-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony/H79039000001000-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } ] }
{ “thumbImageID”: “Les-Paul-Tribute-2018–Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Satin-Gold-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard/K35721000002001”, “defaultDisplayName”: “Gibson Les Paul Tribute 2018 – Solid Body Electric Guitar”, “styleThumbWidth”: “60”, “styleThumbHeight”: “60”, “styleOptions”: [ { “name”: “Satin Gold Vintage White Pearl Pickguard”, “sku”: “sku:site51500000137390”, “price”: 1149.0, “regularPrice”: 1149.0, “msrpPrice”: 1919.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Gibson/Les-Paul-Tribute-2018-Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Satin-Gold-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard-1500000137390.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Les-Paul-Tribute-2018–Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Satin-Gold-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard/K35721000002001”, “brandName”: “Gibson”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Les-Paul-Tribute-2018–Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Satin-Gold-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard/K35721000002001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Faded Honey Burst Vintage White Pearl Pickguard”, “sku”: “sku:site51500000137389”, “price”: 1149.0, “regularPrice”: 1149.0, “msrpPrice”: 1919.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Gibson/Les-Paul-Tribute-2018-Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Faded-Honey-Burst-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard-1500000137389.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Les-Paul-Tribute-2018–Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Faded-Honey-Burst-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard/K35721000001001”, “brandName”: “Gibson”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Les-Paul-Tribute-2018–Solid-Body-Electric-Guitar-Faded-Honey-Burst-Vintage-White-Pearl-Pickguard/K35721000001001-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } ] }
Many of us learned listening to him and Dickey. There’s never been anyone like him since. He is unique and sorely missed by all of the folks for that era and anyone else that has listened to him play.
Use of audio feedback to enhance sustain and change timbre. Feedback has become a striking characteristic of rock music, as electric guitar players such as Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend and Jimi Hendrix deliberately induced feedback by holding their guitars close to the amplifier. Lou Reed created his 1975 album Metal Machine Music entirely from loops of feedback played at various speeds. A good example of feedback can be heard on Jimi Hendrix’s performance of “Can You See Me?” at the Monterey Pop Festival. The entire guitar solo was created using amplifier feedback.[24]
Terry Burrows has written or contributed to books and CD-ROMs on subjects as diverse as popular psychology, business and management, general history, the Internet, computer software, pop culture and music. He plays a variety of instruments and has been responsible for nearly forty commercial releases.
Electric guitars were originally designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers. Some of the earliest electric guitars adapted hollow-bodied acoustic instruments and used tungsten pickups. The first electrically amplified guitar was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, who was vice president.[3] The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium “frying pan” was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.[3] Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation (Electro-Patent-Instrument Company), in Los Angeles,[4][5] a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker (originally Rickenbacher), and Paul Barth.[6] In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937.[7][8][9][10]
While music is an art form in itself, playing an instrument such as the guitar has long been a popular subject for painters. One of the more famous examples is the painting Degas’s Father Listening to Lorenzo Pagans Playing the Guitar by Edgar Degas, which was painted sometime between 1869–72 and is currently owned by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[1]
The white circles along the top of the chord tell you that you should still be strumming those strings with no fingers pressed on them. If you see an X above a string that means you should try not to strum that string while playing the chord.
That’s what this book is about and it delivers in spades. It sharpens your will to learn and how to set goals rather than your actual technique. If you need to reinvigorate your desire to learn and find the importance of why you are learning in the first place, this book that will apply Zen lessons to the art of learning guitar in a way that is very motivational (but not in a shove spiritual dogma in your face kind of way). If that is what you are looking for in a guitar book, it is hard to beat Zen Guitar.
This Hal Leonard guitar book is actually a series of 3 books, each around 50 pages, and it comes with 3 supplemental CDs which you can refer to during the chapters. I would recommend this book to younger students (under 20). It is ultra simplistic, which can be nice in some instances, but a bit boring in others.
Bobby Jo is number one on this list. Every artist has unknowingly been influenced by him. Starting in the Mississippi Delta, Johnson’s life is rife with myths, and allegory. His deal with the devil and death are full of folklore and mysticism, and it only adds to his haunting voice and groundbreaking guitar playing. His songs are just a pure expression of emotion with no bars held. He led the groundwork for early blues to be filled in and worked upon by all the artists on this list. He also worked on breaking down social barriers. A black man in the early 20th century was not exactly the best place to be. But his music was to add interest by white musicians and help the civil movements of the sixties. Politically or musically, Robert Johnson is deserving of number one on this list.
Guitar amplifier design uses a different approach than sound reinforcement system power amplifiers and home “hi-fi” stereo systems. Audio amplifiers generally are intended to accurately reproduce the source signal without adding unwanted tonal coloration (i.e., they have a flat frequency response) or unwanted distortion. In contrast, most guitar amplifiers provide tonal coloration and overdrive or distortion of various types. A common tonal coloration sought by guitarists is rolling off some of the high frequencies. Along with a guitarist’s playing style and choice of electric guitar and pickups, the choice of guitar amp model is a key part of a guitarist’s unique tone. Many top guitarists are associated with a specific brand of guitar amp. As well, electric guitarists in blues, rock and many related sub-genres often intentionally choose amplifiers or effects units with controls that distort or alter the sound (to a greater or lesser degree).
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
After distortion became popular amongst rock music groups, guitar amplifier manufacturers included various provisions for it as part of amplifier design, making amps easier to overdrive, and providing separate “dirty” and “clean” channels so that distortion could easily be switched on and off. The distortion characteristics of vacuum tube amplifiers are particularly sought-after in blues and many rock music genres, and various attempts have been made to emulate them without the disadvantages (e.g., fragility, low power, expense) of actual tubes. Distortion, especially in tube based amplifiers, can come from several sources: power supply sag as more power is demanded than the supply can provide at a steady voltage, deliberate gain over drive of active elements, or alterations in the feedback provisions for various circuit stages.[21]
If the Complete Technique book is good for quick starts, this would be the bullet train. Another Hal Leonard selection, this is a trim 48 pages for teaching you how to hold a guitar for the first time. Tuning up, easy chords, and strumming. If you got a guitar on Friday, use this to put together your first three-chord jam by Monday. Will it sound good? No, no, it will not. But you’ll have started, which is key. Some of the other books on this list are dense with both concepts and pages, which might delay your starting. Don’t let that happen.
Though it gained immense popularity during the rock ‘n’ roll days of the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar was invented in 1931. The need for the amplified guitar became apparent during the Big Band Era as orchestras increased in size, particularly when guitars had to compete with large brass sections. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. By 1932, an electrically amplified guitar was commercially available. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932, Dobro in 1933, National, Epiphone and Gibson in 1935 and many others by 1936.
About 30 years ago, a fellow co-worker began teaching me how to play electric guitar. I believe it was an Aria Pro Strat. He had been playing for 20 plus years at this time and was a very good teacher, he owned a 1958 Les Paul. I have not played since he was in a car wreck in 1990 as he could not return to work. He was however able to continue to play, its just our schedules never allowed the time to take lessons. He passed away in 2011, and since I retired last year, I’d like to take up lessons. I found your article very helpful in selecting an electric guitar. It mentions a lot of things most people do not consider when buying.
{ “thumbImageID”: “Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony/H79035000004000”, “defaultDisplayName”: “Epiphone Limited Edition ES-335 PRO Electric Guitar”, “styleThumbWidth”: “60”, “styleThumbHeight”: “60”, “styleOptions”: [ { “name”: “Vintage Sunburst”, “sku”: “sku:site51321473136438”, “price”: 479.99, “regularPrice”: 479.99, “msrpPrice”: 765.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Epiphone/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Vintage-Sunburst-1321473136438.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Vintage-Sunburst/H79035000002000”, “brandName”: “Epiphone”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Vintage-Sunburst/H79035000002000-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Natural”, “sku”: “sku:site51321473136578”, “price”: 459.0, “regularPrice”: 459.0, “msrpPrice”: 699.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Epiphone/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Natural-1321473136578.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Natural/H79035000003000”, “brandName”: “Epiphone”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Natural/H79035000003000-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Cherry”, “sku”: “sku:site51321473136388”, “price”: 479.99, “regularPrice”: 479.99, “msrpPrice”: 765.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Epiphone/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Cherry-1321473136388.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Cherry/H79035000001000”, “brandName”: “Epiphone”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Top Seller”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “New”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Cherry/H79035000001000-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } , { “name”: “Ebony”, “sku”: “sku:site51321473136598”, “price”: 459.0, “regularPrice”: 459.0, “msrpPrice”: 699.0, “priceVisibility”: “1”, “skuUrl”: “/Epiphone/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony-1321473136598.gc”, “skuImageId”: “Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony/H79035000004000”, “brandName”: “Epiphone”, “stickerDisplayText”: “Clearance”, “stickerClass”: “”, “condition”: “Clearance”, “priceDropPrice”:””, “wasPrice”: “”, “priceDrop”: “”, “placeholder”: “https://static.guitarcenter.com/img/cmn/c.gif”, “assetPath”: “https://media.guitarcenter.com/is/image/MMGS7/Limited-Edition-ES-335-PRO-Electric-Guitar-Ebony/H79035000004000-00-60×60.jpg”, “imgAlt”: “” } ] }
Note that ‘semi-acoustics’ are not really acoustic, they are electric guitars with a semi-hollow body, and so are sometimes confusingly referred to as semi-acoustics. However, they play like electrics.
Here you will find a list of beginner guitar chords. These chords are very commonly used through many popular songs and so learning them is a great foundation for your guitar future. With the chords below you will be able to play thousands of songs, including most of your favourites. And once you have learnt these chords and the changes between them you will find it very easy to learn new chords and add them to your repertoire.
If you’re just getting started playing electric guitar, you’ve definitely come to the right place! Sam Ash is the ultimate destination for all of your electric guitar learning materials! We are proud to offer everything you need to learn how to play electric guitar including instructional guitar books, guitar instructional DVDs, guitar tablature books, guitar music books, guitar reference materials, and even guitar chord charts to assist in your learning! We also carry all the accessories you need to get started, including guitar tuners, guitar picks, electric guitar strings, guitar straps, guitar amps, guitar cables, guitar stands, and much more!
Playing the guitar well is not about strength but about control. As you watch any professional musician you will notice how they appear to effortlessly finesse their instrument. The easiest guitar to play is the one you are truly interested in.
Maybe one is looking to channel their inner Clapton or Gilmour, or maybe their kid has decided that rock ‘n’ roll fame is the only acceptable outcome of his or her life, either way it may be time to look…
The guitarist may employ any of several methods for sounding the guitar, including finger picking, depending on the type of strings used (either nylon or steel), and including strumming with the fingers, or a guitar pick made of bone, horn, plastic, metal, felt, leather, or paper, and melodic flatpicking and finger-picking.
Another consideration, and something you’ll read a lot about, is the pickups, which give the guitar its voice. There are two kinds of pickup in this price range: the single-coil (which gives a bright, sparkly sound) and the humbucker (which is fuller, meatier and perfect for rock and metal). Both are as common as each other in this budget range, and a guitar with a mix of both will offer you the best versatility.
After reading through Teach Yourself to Play Guitar, my opinion is that if you are giving a guitar as a gift to someone, this might be an OK book to accompany that. If you wanted to spend a bit more, or are looking for a book for yourself, I would go with the 2nd book reviewed below, the Guitar for Dummies book. It has online video and audio demos, and hearing what you should be playing helps when learning music… 😉
Number 1 is the index finger, 2 is the middle finger, 3 is the ring finger, and 4 is your pinky. You don’t use the thumb to fret, except in certain unusual circumstances. In those cases there would be a “T” inside the black dot.
Very good list. Glaring ommission but forgiveable would be the studio musicians who you have heard for years but never knew their names. Cats like Tommy Tedesco, Howard Roberts, Jerry Cole, Bill Pitman & Glen Cambell, Yes he could play. Other Country cats like Chet Atkins, Doc Watson, Jerry Reed, & Roy Clark. Jazz giants like Kenny Burrell, Pat Martino, & Barney Kessel – also a studio guy from the wrecking crew. Accoustic players like Leo Kottke, or Christopher Parkening.
It also has an overwhelming amount of sheet music in it. These music sheets allow you to practice what is being taught in the given chapter, which is nice, but going through the books, I felt there was a lot left unexplained. This was probably a result of them trying to simplify things as much as possible, but this actually leaves holes in the padawan guitarist’s knowledge.
Generally speaking, you can apply the first ‘filter’ to your search by segmenting things according to one of three main variables; price, look and sound. The price of the guitar is perhaps the most limiting factor; we’re sure everyone would plump for a top of the range Gibson or Fender but, as you’ll find out, the flagship guitars from these guys run into four figures. You could quite easily pick up a decent second hand car for the same price as a Gibson Les Paul so, if you’re at the start of your playing career, it may be wiser to set your sights a bit lower. Don’t forget your dreams though; every guitarist has what they’d call a ‘perfect’ guitar, the one which they’d appropriate in the event of a significant lottery win. Never forget that guitar, and use the thought of it to drive you on through those first few years learning monotonous scales and chords. Trust us, it’s worth it. The feeling you get when you finally purchase your long-time dream guitar, and have the playing chops to match, is really something else.
Should be higher, and I wish he was. Pink Floyd are my favourite band, and David Gilmour’s guitar solos can be matched by few, if any. Gilmour is famous for his bluesy, slow style that puts the emphasis on phrasing rather than technique. – Floods
Why is Jimmy page is #4 he should be #1, he is the rock God of all time. All of the album’s of led zeppelin is the best, he worked hard on all of the best guitar solos in like over 30+ best songs. Jimmy Page #1 for life

{ “thumbImageID”: “224ce-K-Deluxe-Grand-Auditorium-Acoustic-Electric-Guitar-Shaded-Edge-Burst/J45043000001000”, “defaultDisplayName”: “Taylor 224ce-K Deluxe Grand Auditorium Acoustic-Electric Guitar”, “styleThumbWidth”: “60”, “styleThumbHeight”: “60”, “styleOptions”: [ ] }
This interactive package (complete with a book, an instructional CD, a wall chart poster, a guitar pick and three sheets of fretboard stickers) equips the novice with everything he or she needs–short of an electric guitar and an amplifier–to become competent to play in a band within three months. The course is divided into twelve weekly lessons. Each lesson outlines the objectives of the week ahead and concludes with one of twelve specially commissioned backing tracks over which the novice can use the newly learned techniques. The book concludes with tips how to get the right sound from a guitar, amplifier and effects, as well as tips on forming a band, playing live and recording. If you’ve ever wanted to play in the band instead of just watching it, now you can!
We are your new best friend when it comes to guitars, gear, lessons and everything else that goes with the greatest musical instrument in the world! Choosing a guitar and learning how to play can be overwhelming.
The fourth type of system employs string-through body anchoring. The strings pass over the bridge saddles, then through holes through the top of the guitar body to the back. The strings are typically anchored in place at the back of the guitar by metal ferrules. Many believe this design improves a guitar’s sustain and timbre. A few examples of string-through body guitars are the Fender Telecaster Thinline, the Fender Telecaster Deluxe, the B.C. Rich IT Warlock and Mockingbird, and the Schecter Omen 6 and 7 series.
Also, there are some cheaper Ibanez guitars that sound great. Fender Squires are not bad either, though I’ve seen some badly set up ones with really cheap fittings, so be careful. Buying a proper USA-built Fender Stratocaster will always be awesome though if you have the budget!
Not only can he make amazing guitar riffs, he can play so many other instruments! He revolutionized Punk in his era and still is. Not only with a pretty face and a voice to go with it, but his guitar trumps all.
[otp_overlay]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *